James Hartness Papers
Scope and Content Note
The James Hartness Papers consist of correspondence, writings of James Hartness, printed and mimeogrpahed material, newspaper clippings and photographs. They span the years 1882-1935, falling mainly within the period 1904-1933.
The collection reflects Hartness' business, professional and avocational interests, its emphasis being on his professional and public affiliations both in Vermont and nationally.
There are eleven series in the collection. Series I, General Correspondence is the largest series in the papers. Hartness' correspondents range from fellow Vermonters to persons nationally and internationally active in engineering, astronomy, invention, industrial management, and politics. His Vermont correspondence addresses both personal and public matters. There is a smattering of correspondence regarding machine tool manufacture in Vermont and elsewhere and also a number of letters between Hartness and members of his immediate and extended families including his brothers, John A. and Robert B. A list of notable correspondents and lists of correspondents arranged by subject follow this description. Series I is arranged alphabetically by individual correspondent, institution, organization or company.
Series II, Professional Files, represents in a more concentrated form Hartness' nonoccupational activities, i.e., his association with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American Engineering Council, the Aero Clubs of Vermont and the U.S., and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Included here are also Hartness-For-Governor campaign material, correspondence relating to his term as governor of Vermont, reports and letters regarding the Vermont State Board of Education, the Naval Consulting Board / Organization for Industrial Preparedness, and the National Screw Thread Commission. All this material, apart from the Hartness-For-Governor and State of Vermont material, is arranged chronologically; the political papers are arranged by subject and alphabetically. Jones and Lamson Machine Co. material has been added to this series; this material is general and incomplete, composed mainly of letters to the company from clients or other machine tool manufacturers; it is arranged alphabetically. (See oversized Photo #173, the J & L Machine Shop Group Photo [1895?].)
The professional engineering files form the bulk of Series II: these are fairly extensive reports of A.S.M.E. and A.E.C. projects plus letters to and from members of the Society and Council. The Naval Consulting Board files concern the industrial survey of Vermont undertaken by the Vermont Committee of Public Safety in 1916-1917. The governor's papers included here are incomplete; a more complete set is available on microfilm at the Vermont Public Records Division in Montpelier.
Series III, Personal Files, consists mainly of correspondence regarding appointments - largely speech making engagements, applications and recommendations plus Hartness' investment and tax files. This material is arranged by subject.
Series IV, Miscellaneous Subject Files, is a fairly incomplete assortment of correspondence and some printed matter not central to Hartness' primary interests.
Series V consists of the papers of James Hartness' secretary, Harry T. Laffin, and of his son-in-law, Dr. William H. Beardsley. The Laffin material - correspondence, reports and printed matter - deals primarily with the Boy Scout movement in Vermont and with the Springfield, VT Chamber of Commerce. Beardsley's papers present a greater scope of interest: general correspondence, Vermont State Chamber of Commerce, the Green Mountain Parkway Plan, the National Recovery Administration, speeches and reports, newspaper clippings. Both the Laffin and the Beardsley sections are arranged by subject.
Series VI, Writings and Speeches of James Hartness, is arranged by title. The writings are the rough and the finished copies, manuscript and typescript, of his books, articles, and speeches. They deal with engineering, industrial management, aviation and politics. The unpublished "Star Gazing in Comfort" is included in this series as are miscellaneous notes and fragments and a single folder of writings of others including Russell Porter on astronomy and Henry L. Gantt on efficiency.
Series VII, Photographs, consists mainly of Hartness/Beardsley/Flanders family snapshots. There are a few late nineteenth century photos of Lena P. Hartness' grandmother's farmhouse and land, plus three folders of unidentified photographs, one folder of negatives and one folder of postcards.
The newspaper clippings of Series VIII are generally organized by subject, dealing for the most part with Hartness' primary campaign, his terms as governor of Vermont and as president of the American Engineering Council. The four scrapbooks in this series deal with astronomy, with his term in state office, with his 1915 speech on "The New Vermont" and with items of general interest.
Series IX consists of one folder of memorabilia: an assortment of calling cards, membership cards, tickets, etc.
The final series, Printed Matter, contains copies of Hartness' published writings (all of which are duplicated in the Vermont Research Collection) plus miscellaneous magazines, pamphlets, and newsletters on various subjects, again reflecting Hartness' professional and avocational interests. Some of the material from Series X has been removed to the Vermont Research Collection and to general library circulation. See the Separated Material note.
An oversized material is composed of machine blueprints and mechanical drawings and State of Vermont Fiscal Charts.
A series of Family Papers was added to the collection in 2017 relevant to the Beardsley family. The correspondence present mainly consists of William H. Beardsley's letters to Anna Jackson Hartness in the years leading up to their marriage, and letters Anna wrote to her mother Lena from the early years of Anna's marriage. Anna often addressed her letters to her mother with the nickname "Puss." William and Anna's daughter Mary Beardsley Fenn transcribed several handwritten letters in 2009; these are noted when present. Mary also wrote a biography of her grandparents, James Hartness and Lena Pond Hartness, which is included in the Family Papers series.
- Hartness, James (Person)
Collection is open for research.
Terms Governing Use and Reproduction
Collection does not circulate.
James Hartness was born in Schenectady, New York, on September 3, 1861 to Ursilla Jackson (approximately 1834-1891) and John William Hartness (approximately 1830-1906). At the age of two he moved with his parents and brothers (John and Robert) to Cleveland, Ohio. His father found work in various machine shops there, finally joining Younglove, Massey and Co. in the capacity of foreman and then superintendent. James was educated in Cleveland public schools and, finishing his grammar school course, he went to work for his father's employer. He apprenticed under Jason Bidwell at the Union Steel Screw Works in Cleveland from 1877-1880 and in 1882, at the age of twenty-one, took a job as foreman at the Thompson, Stacker Bolt Co. of Winstead, Connecticut.
On May 13, 1885, he married Lena Sanford Pond of Winstead and later that year went to work for the Union Hardware Co. at Torrington, Connecticut. In 1888-1889, while Lena remained in Torrington with their first daughter, Anna Jackson, James Hartness worked successively for Pratt and Whitney of Hartford, Eaton, Cole and Burnham of Bridgeport and at an engine shop in Scottsdale, Pennsylvania. None of these plants suited his purposes, however, and in 1889 he applied for and was hired as shop superintendent at the Jones and Lamson Machine Co. of Springfield, Vermont. Their second child, daughter Helen Edith, was born in Springfield in 1890.
Hartness had begun patenting his inventions in 1886; by 1888 he had five patents, four of them in his own name. In 1891 he patented the flat turret lathe, an improved model that allowed for longer cuts and for heavier and faster work, a radical improvement on the high turret lathes then in use.
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, which Hartness joined in 1891, had, several years earlier, begun to move away from the purely technical consideration of the profession and to consider the broader issues of engineering, principally efficient methods of manufacture and shop management. In 1897 Hartness contributed two papers, both dealing with thread-cutting, to the Society's annual meetings. He took an increasing part in committee work in the early years of this century and in 1909 was elected manager of the A.S.M.E., holding that office for three years. After two years as the Society's Vice President he was, in 1914, elected for a one year term and remained actively involved with the A.S.M.E. Executive Council for the next five years. During his active years in the Society Hartness wrote several influential books on industrial management, including The Human Factor in Works Management and The Human Element: The Key to Economic Problems.
His public career began in 1914 when Governor Allen M. Fletcher appointed him to the Vermont State Board of Education, with which he remained associated until 1920. He, in the meantime, expanded his public service working as federal food administrator for the State of Vermont (1917), as chairman of the Vermont Industrial Survey conducted by the U.S. Naval Consulting Board / Organization for Industrial Preparedness through the Vermont Committee of Public Safety (1916-1917), and as a member of the Interallied Aircraft Standardization Commission (1918) and of the National Screw Thread Commission (1918).
In the Republican gubernatorial primary campaign of 1920 Hartness faced Frank W. Agan, Frederick H. Babbitt, and Curtiss Emery, winning the party's nomination well ahead of his opponents. His campaign strategy was to present himself as an engineer and a successful business man who could bring new ideas and new methods to the state executive department. In his campaign speeches and literature he pointed continually to the need to develop Vermont industrially as well as agriculturally. Through the Hartness-For-Governor Clubs he was able to personally approach a wide sampling of Republican voters and he supported his personal campaign with a steady stream of campaign bulletins and newspaper detailing his plans for Vermont.
While governor he reorganized the highway department and brought increased attention to the need for efficiency in state government.
The Federated American Engineering Societies, which became the American Engineering Council - a body set up by the various American engineering associations for purposes of national and governmental policy consultation - elected Hartness President in 1924. His health was poor that year, however, which seriously limited his capacity in that office.
Ill health continued through the following years. He underwent three operations in 1925, never fully recovering from them, He nevertheless found time and energy to attend the annual A.S.M.E. meetings in 1926 (in Denver) and 1929 (Salt Lake City). And in the last three years of his life, he took out a group of ten patents, most of them relations to precision thread gauging.
He retired from the Jones and Lamson presidency in 1930 though he remained personally associated with the company. On March 18, 1933, Lena Pond Hartness died of cancer. James Hartness died on February 2 of the following year.
Anna Jackson Hartness (1899-1966) married William Henry Beardsley (1882-1935) in 1912 and they had three children: James "Harty" Hartness Beardsley (1914-2004), Constance Hartness Beardsley Claghorn, and Mary Hartness Beardsley Fenn (1917-2015). William was the son of Oliver W. Beardsley and Theresa Leedon Beardsley. William graduated from Yale University Medical School in 1910. He had three sisters (Ella, Nellie, and Carrie) and two brothers (Robert and Lewis, who went by Lew). Helen Edith Hartness Flanders (1890-1972) married Ralph Edward Flanders (1880-1970) in 1911 and they had three children: Helen Elizabeth Flanders (b. 1912 and went by Elizabeth), Anna "Nancy" Hartness Flanders Balivet (1918-1962), and James Hartness Flanders (1923-1992). Ralph was the son of Albert W. Flanders and Minnie Gilfillan Flanders. Ralph went on to serve as the U.S. Senator from Vermont from 1946-1959.
31.2 Linear Feet (24 cartons, 2 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Language of Materials
Collection includes correspondence relating to personal and family matters, Aero Clubs of Vermont and America, American Engineering Council (1924-1933), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1913-1933), U.S. Naval Consulting Board (1917), Hartness's Gubernatorial Campaign and term (1920-1922), machine tool manufacture in France, Germany, Great Britain, and the U.S. (1910-1930), lathes and thread cutting tools, and screw thread standardization (1918); together with manuscript, typescript, and printed writings by Hartness; reports and printed material relating to his professional affiliations, including the U.S. Chamber of Commerce; and photographs.
Library Research Annex; contact email@example.com for access.
Astronomy Material Removed From Hartness Papers
1. Donald Menzel, A Study of the Chromosphere
2. Nicholas Bobronikoff, Halley's Comet in its Apparition of 1909-1911 (Publications of the Lick Observatory, Vol. XVII, 1931)
3. Contents of Annals of Harvard College Observatory, 1911
4. Distribution of Stellar Spectra (Annals of Harvard College Observatory, Vol. LVI, No. 1)
5. Stars Having Spectra of Class B (Annals of Harvard College Observatory, Vol. LVI, No.2)
6. Annie J. Cannon, Classification of 1477 Stars by Means of their Photographic Spectra (Annals of Harvard College Observatory, Vol. LVI, No. IV)
7. William H. Pickering, A Search for a Planet Beyond Neptune (Annals of the Astronomical Obervatory of Harvard College, Vol. LXI, Part II)
8. Joseph Haines Moore, A General Catalogue of the Radical Velocities of the Stars, Nebulae and Clusters (Publications of the Lick Observatory, Vol XVIII, 1932)
9. Monthly Notcices of the Royal Astronomical Society (Vol. 94, No. 1, 1933, Nov)
Vermont printed matter removed from the Hartness Papers
10. Thirteenth Biennial Report of the Free Public Library Commision of the State of Vermont (July 1, 1918 to June 30, 1920)
11. Vermont State Teachers' Association Seventy-Fourth Annual Convention (October 17, 19, 20, 1923)
12. Vermont State Merchants Association Campaign for the Study of the Road Problem, Road Data (n.d.)
13. Vermont State Merchants Association Special Good Roads Bulletin (Nos. 4-6)
14. Vermont State Horticultural Society Program and Premium List of the Annual Fruit Show, Rutland, Vermont (Nov 17-19, 1920)
15. Rutland Fair Bulletin (1921)
16. Industrial Survey Committee Confidential Preliminary Report to the Vermont Committe of Public Safety (1917)
17. Vt. State Chamber of Commerce Springfield, Vt.--Accomplishments During Five Years under Manager Plan of Government (n.d.)
18. Vermont's Opportunity by Col. William J. Wilgus (1933 Aug 8)
19. Springfield, Vermont - The Cradle of Progress and Invention
20. Vermont Women Teachers' Club Year Book (1919-20)
21. Modern Woodmen of America, Alpha Camp Directory (1920)
22. Westfield Vt., Annual Reports of the Town Officers for the year ending February 2, 1920
23. U.S. Department of Commerce - Bureau of the Census. Fourteenth Census of the United States. Manufacturers: 1919, GPO: 1920
24. Vermont Federation of Women's Clubs. Yearbook (1919-20)
25. Green Mt. Boys. The Road Builder - Charles W. Gates for Governor (1915?)
26. State of Vermont, Commisioner of Finance. Fifth Biennial State Budget (1934-35)
27. James Hartness. Inaugural Message of James Hartness...(1921 Jan 7)
28. Industrial Code & Human Economics (1922 Dec)
29 The Human Element, The Key to Economic Problems. A.S.M.E. (1914)
30. Human Element in the Machine Shop. (Johns Hopkins Press, 1919)
31. Kiplinger Washington Letter:
1930 August 23
1930 September 6, 13, 27
1930 October 4, 11, 18, 25
1930 November 1, 8, 15, 29
1930 December 6, 13, 20, 27
Kiplinger Tax Letter
1930 September 20
1932 April 2
1932 May 38
1932 June 25
1932 July 9, 23
1932 August 6
1932 September 3, 17
1932 October 1, 17, 29
1932 November 12, 26
1932 December 10, 24
1933 January 9, 21
1933 February 6, 18
1933 March 4, 17
1933 April 1, 15, 29
1933 May 13, 29
1933 September 2, 30
1933 October 14, 28
1933 November 11
Kiplinger Tariff Letter
1930 November 12
The lists of correspondents which follow refer to letters contained in the General Correspondence series.
Charles Witing Baker, 1865-1941
A.W. Bickerton, 1842-1929
Calvin Coolidge, 1872-1933
Channing Cox, 1879-1968
Porter Dale, 1867-1933
Josephus Daniels, 1862-1948
Wiliam Dillingham, 1843-1923
Irving Fisher, 1867-1947
Ralph E. Flanders, 1880-1970
Henry Ford, 1863-1947
Henry L. Gantt, 1861-1919
Frank B. Gilbreth, 1868-1924
Strickland Gillilan, -1954
Kate Gleason, 1865-1933
Warren G. Harding 1865-1923
Herbert Hoover, 1874-1964
Henry M. Leland, 1843-1932
Hudson Day Maxim, 1853-1927
John J. Pershing, 1860-1948
Newell Sanders, 1850-1939
Emery J. San Souci, 1857-1936
John Spargo, 1876-1966
William Howard Taft, 1857-1930
Frederick W. Taylor, 1859-1915
Webb Waldron, 1882-1945
Booker T. Washington, 1859-1915
John W. Weeks, 1860-1926
George Westinghouse, 1846-1914
Orville Wright, 1871-1948
Robert G. Aitken, Lick Observatory
American Astronomical Society
Astronomical Society of the Pacific
Leon Barritt, Monthly Evening Sky Map
William B. Cabot
W.W. Campbell, Lick Observatory
Irving H. Friend
Willard P. Gerrish, Harvard College
George E. Hale
Mt. Washington Observatory
New Zealand Astronomical Society
Russell W. Porter
Royal Astronomical Society
Harlow Shapley, Harvard Observatory
Aerial Age Weekly
Aerial League of America
Aeronautical Plane and Motor Co.
Aeronautical Society of Great Britain
American Aerial Corporation
Ameican Institute of Aeronautical Engineering
American Society of Aeronautical Engineers
William F. Durand, Stanford University
Fred H. Harris
Manufacturers Aircraft Association Inc.
Louis Marburg, A.S.M.E.
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
National Aeronautic Association
Pioneer Instruments Co.
Royal Aeronautical Society
Capt. Henry E. Stickney
B.F. Sturtevant Co.
James P. Taylor
The Wright Co.
Comfort A. Adams, Harvard School of Engineering
Adams Engineering, New Zealand
Aeronautical Society of Great Briatain
Affiliated Tchnical Societies of Atlanta
L.P. Alford, Industrial Management
John D. Allen Co.
Charles H. Alvord
American Engineering Standards Commission
American Institute of Aeronautical Engineering
American Institute of Electrical Engineers
American Institute of Weights and Measures
American Society of Aeronautic Engineers
Charles Whiting Baker
Florus R. Baxter
Emile Joseph Bayle
Charles S. Beach
G.P. Blackeston, Staff
Boston Society of Civil Engineers
John A. Brashear
George M. Brill
Joseph J. Butcher
Carboloy Co. Inc.
Fred H. Colvin
M.E. Cooley, University of Michigan
A.G. Christie, Johns Hopkins University
Heber D. Curtis
Charles Ethan Davis
Frank C. Doble
Engineers' National Hoover Committee
Sir Henry Fowler
John R. Freeman
Charles de Freminville
Lester G. French
Frank B. Gilbreth
W.F.M. Goss, University of Illinois
Charles R. Gow
Arthur M. Green, Jr., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
George W. Guy
Chester B. Hamilton, Jr.
George D. Hartley
Alex C. Humphreys
William F. Hunt
Institiution of Mechanical Engineers
International Association of Machinists
D.C. and Wm. B. Jackson
Dexter B. Kimball, Cornell University
The Machinery Club
Charles H. Manning
William H. Maw
Col. E.D. Meier
Fred J. Miller
Wilbur G. Miller, Technical Club of Syracuse
Miller, Franklin & Co.
Irving E. Moultrop
Museum of the Peaceful Arts
National Machine Tool Builders Association
National Museum of Engineering and Industry
James W. Nelson
Robert E. Newcomb
New Haven Machine Tool Exhibit
Pratt & Whitney Co.
Edward Robinson, University of Vermont
Joseoh W. Roe
Albert W. Smith, Cornell University
Jesse M. Smith
Perry G. Smith
Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education
Society of American Military Engineers
Society of Automontive Engineers
Stevens Engineering Society
Stevens Intitute of Technology
J.S. & J.F. String, Inc.
John E. Sweet
William T. Taylor
Technology Club of Syracuse
United Engineering Society
Vereines deutscher Ingenieure
Vermont Society of Engineers
Frank O. Wells
J.G. White Engineering Corp.
Margaret H. Clark
Maud B. Clarke
William H. and Anna H. Beardsley
Ralph E. and Helen H. Flanders
Mrs. A.J. Galloway
James F. Hartness
John A. Harness
J. Van Ness Hartness
Robert B. Hartness
Jennie Hartness Murphy
Mrs. E.B. Osborne
Mrs. Horace Thomas
Dr. Frank E. Allard
Stephen E. Barton
Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Co.
Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States
Lawrence and Wheeler, Inc.
National Life Insurance
New England Mutual Life
Paul and Dixon
Starkweather and Shepley
Union Central Life Insurance Co.
Jones & Lamson Machine Co.
Bryant Chucking Grinder Co.
Fellows Gear Shaper Co.
George O. Gridley
John A. Hartness
Lovejoy Tool Co.
Machine Tool Manufacturing
Abenaque Machine Works
Adler & Eisenschitz
Charles Alvord, Hendey Machine Co.
Cincinnati Bickford Tool Co.
Cincinnati Milling Machine Co.
Cleveland Twist Drill Co.
Columbia Steel and Shifting Co.
Draper Machine Tool Co.
Arthur L. Garford
Greenfield Tap & Die Co.
Hendey Machine Co.
E. Horton & Son Co.
John A. McGregor, Union Twist Drill Co.
George E. Merryweather
National Acme Co.
National Machine Tool Builders Association
New Haven Machine Tool Exhibition
Gorham C. Parker
Pratt & Whitney Co.
W.F. Russell, Harrisburg Foundry & Machine Works
Cullen B. Snell
Thomas Towne, Union Drawn Steel Co.
Union Mfg. Co.
Alton V. Wiggins, A.V. Wiggins & CO.
Frank A. Woods
Vt. Anti -Saloon League
Misc. Subject Files--Prohibition
American Museum of Safety
American Society for Promoting Efficiency
G.P. Blackiston and Staff
The Business Bourse
Committee of Ten
Dartmouth, Amos Tuck School
Frank B. Gilbreth
Robert F. Hoxie University of Chicago
C.E. Knoeppel & Co.
Miller, Franklin & Co.
President's Commission on Economy and Efficiency
Society to Promote the Science of Management
Frederick W. Taylor
Springfield Board of Trade
Springfield Book Club
Springfield Cemetery Commissioners
Springfield Chamber of Commerce
Springfield Community Club
Springfield Community House
Springfield Cooperative Savings and Loan
Springfield Electric Railway Co.
Springfield Fair Association
Springfield Ice Co.
Springfield Mechanical Society
Springfield Rod and Gun Club
Springfield Savings Bank
Springfield, Vermont, town of
C.A. Adams, State Normal School
American Federation of Labor, Vermont Branch
American Legion, Dept. of Vermont
Associated Industries of Vermont
Auto Club of Vermont
Guy W. Bailey
Margaret P. Batchelder
Guy Potter Benton
Walter J. Bigelow
Franklin S. Billings
Frank H. Brooks
Burlington Chamber of Commerce
Burlington Free Press
Burlington Merchants Association
Merritt D. Chittenden
Byron N. Clark, Y.M.C.A.
Percival W . Clement
Walter H. Crockett
Charles R. Cummings, The Vermonter
John T. Cushing, St. Albans Messenger
Walter Rice Davenport, D.D.
Fred C. Davis
Ralph Denio, Bristol Railroad CO.
Carroll W . Doten, V t. Association of Boston
Eastern States Exposition
Charles T. Fairfield , Rutland News Co.
Clarke C. Fitts
Frederick G. Fleetwood
Allen M. Fletcher
Abram W . Foote
Charles S. Forbes
Forestry Association of Vermont
Charles W. Gates
Ernest W. Gibson
Bessie Bacon Goodrich
Horace F. Graham
Greater Vermont Association
Frank L. Greene
Arthur W . Hewitt
Milo B. Hillegas
Arthur Platt Howard
Frank E. Howe
Archibald C. Hurd
Oscar S. Marshall
John A. Mead
Frank C. Partridge
Carroll S. Page
Max Powell, Burlington Merchants Association
Randolph Board of Trade
Randolph Merchants Association
Edward Robinson, University of Vermont
St. Albans Chamber of Commerce
St. Michael's College
Henry B. Shaw
C.H. Spooner, Norwich University
Mason S. Stone
James P. Taylor
Gen. Lee S. Tillotson
John W , Titcomb
University of Vermont
Vermont Anti-Saloon League
Vernont Association for the Prevention of TB
Vermont Association of Boston
Vermont Association of Waltham
Vermont Children's Aid Society, Inc.
Vermont Committee of Public Safety
Vermont Conference of Social Work
Vermont Conference on Charities and Correction
Vermont Equal Suffrage Association
Vermont Farm Bureau Federation
Vermont Good Roads Association
Vermont Historical Society
Vermont Hydro-Electric Corp.
Vermont League of Women Voters
Vermont Marble Co.
Vermont Milling Products Co.
Vermont Secretary of State
Vermont Society of Engineers
Vermont State Chamber of Commerce
Vermont State Executive Dept.
Vermont State Fair
Vermont State Game Refuge
Vermont State Horticultural Society
Vermont State Legislature
Vermont State Library
Vermont State Motor Vehicle Dept.
Vermont State Suffrage Association
Vermont State Teachers' Association
Vermont State Treasurer
Vermont Tuberculosis Association
John E. Weeks
White River Junction Board of Trade
Young Men's Christian Association
- Aero Club of Vermont
- American Engineering Council
- American Society of Mechanical Engineers
- Elections -- 1920 -- Vermont
- Jones and Lamson Machine Company
- Machine tool industry -- France
- Machine tool industry -- Germany
- Machine tool industry -- Great Britain
- Machine tool industry -- United States
- Manuscripts (document genre)
- United States. Naval Consulting Board
- Vermont -- Politics and government
- Guide to the James Hartness Papers
- Thomas Connors
- 1981 April
- Description rules
- Describing Archives: A Content Standard
- Language of description
- Script of description
- Code for undetermined script
- Language of description note
- Funded with the assistance of the National Endowment of the Humanities.